Lockdown Racing Rules Quiz

Join the Irish Sailing Lockdown Sailing Rules Quiz!

Take part as an individual, as a class team or a club team. Scenarios will be sent every week, we will keep a leader board and there will be a prize for the best individual and team (Club or class). Please feel free to share with your club or class or team and just submit one answer per team.

Scenario Challenges will be displayed below week and an invitation to share your conclusion then join a Zoom call for discussion on the RIGHT RESULT.

Enjoy 😉

Challenge 8 (not a challenge 😉 ) Protest Committee

Now your chance to be on a protest committee

A lot of the work of the panel is to agree the facts as a team, as an International Jury, you need to agree the facts, conclusions and decision. During the hearing you found that the protest was valid and the following statements from the two parties do form the body of the evidence you have obtained. The testimony from both parties, yield a very similar picture to the diagram below. Conditions were 6Kts. with flat seas. The boats are J80s.

Yellow Peril: We entered the zone clear ahead and we were entitled to mark-room. We tacked and became Starboard right of way boat. Blue Horizon on port tacked inside the zone very close to the mark and while still tacking they broke rule 13 and did not give us mark-room.

Blue Horizon: We were overlaid on port so we bore down with more speed than Yellow Peril who tacked onto starboard inside the zone. Once we saw them on starboard we decided to continue and tack to leeward of them. We tacked as close to the mark as we could and once we had passed head to wind we were overlapped with Yellow Peril who had to give us mark-room.

There was contact between the boats, but no damage. No boat took a penalty. 

As a team agree the facts, conclusions and decision for this protest.

Before the webinar at 17:00 02 June 2020 ...

  • Consider how you would have decided the protest if you had been on the panel. What other questions would you have asked? 

Register your interest in join the protest and group zoom directly by email with Sarah Louise on sl.rossiter@sailing.ie

 

Challenge 7 (not a challenge 😉 )

It is next week’s webinar information but isn’t a challenge. Perfect for those that normally shy away from a protest or would like to up the ante on facing a protest committee!

  • Following the success of the Irish Sailing Lockdown Rules Quiz we are pleased to bring you a series on how to deal with protests.
  • This series of three sessions will aim to equip you as sailors for how to deal with protests, whether that is when you find yourself on the wrong side of the table, or when you are dragged in from the bar to help hear one.
  • Our next session on Tue 26th May will cover the mechanics of a protest, how do they work and what should you expect. This will feature a recording of a real protest to help you understand the process.
  • Each session will last for 45-60 minutes and are hosted by three Irish Sailing International Judges (Cxema Pico, Gordon Davies & Chris Lindsay) who will answer all your questions.
  • We hope this session will help equip you for when we are ready to get back on the water!

Before the webinar at 17:00 26 May 2020 ...

1. Watch the protest hearing here: https://youtu.be/bzgVlwF1Utw. The protest form is attached.

2. Consider how you would have decided the protest if you had been on the panel. What other questions would you have asked? 

Useful info here ...

Challenge 7 ZOOM discussion

 

Challenge 6

This is a somewhat different challenge. You are the local sailor at your club, and are submitting a protest.

  • Your first task is to download and print 2 protest forms. This can be a challenge in itself.
  • Try: https://www.sailing.ie/Racing/Racing-Rules
  • If you look carefully you will find a link to a protest form.
  • Then, please cast your mind back to those far off days when sailing was a regular part of your life. Inevitably, there will be an incident that you remember vividly because you believe that you were hard done by. Someone broke a rule.

The challenge for this week is to protest that incident.

Please fill in the protest form twice:

  • firstly, taking you time, adding as many details as you can
  • then, imagine that there are only a few minutes left before protest time limit. You really need to get that form filled quickly. Fill in the form with as little information as you can that still means the protest will be accepted a valid.

Send scans or photos of the completed forms to: irishsailingruleschallenge@gmail.com by Sunday 17th May midnight (24h00).

On Tuesday 19th of May at 1700hrs we will have a short webinar to discuss the answer. The webinar recording will be able for you to download afterwards if you are not able to make the time.

Previous challenges, correct answers and Zoom recording are now available below.


Challenge 6 Correct Answer and Marking

Marking schedule

Long version (5 points)

Identify the incident          2
Identify protestor              0.5
Identify protestee                    0.5
Where incident took place      0.5
When incident took place       0.5
Rule broken                            0.5
Name of protestor rep.           0.5

Short version

Identify the incident                3
Identify protestor                     1
Identify protestee                     1

Challenge 5

Welcome to Challenge 5 of the Irish Sailing Lockdown Sailing Rules Quiz! Take part as an individual, as a class team or a club team. Please feel free to share with your club or class or team and just submit one answer per team.

  1. The scenario below describes a common issue that arises in coastal and offshore racing. You, as the competitor in the scenario, must describe what action you should take so that all boats follow the rules. Please back up your proposal with reference to the relevant rules
  1. Close of questions and submission is 8th of May. Send back your answers (before Friday 8th May) to irishsailingruleschallenge@gmail.com (max 200 words).
  2. On Tuesday 12th of May at 1700hrs we will have a short webinar to discuss the answer. There will be a panel of 3 International Judges to answer the questions and discuss the scenario (Gordon Davies, Chris Lindsay and Cxema Pico)
  3. The webinar recording will be able for you to download afterwards if you are not able to make the time and displayed below, along with the answers.

Our friends from Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon were back in the bar early today. Both boats suffered damage in a collision and retired from the Cruiser fleet race. However, they are not agreed about who was at fault, and have asked for your advice. Here are their stories: 

Yellow Peril: It was a long reach on starboard tack. We were carrying the spinnaker without too much difficulty except in the gusts. We had noticed that some boats were broaching so we depowered and were coping well. We were sailing straight to the next mark.

Blue Horizon had lost a lot of places going the wrong way up the beat. They hoisted their spinnaker and were fully powered up, the crew sitting out hard on the weather rail, sailing really fast. Blue Horizon caught up with us and were beginning to overtake us about a boat length to leeward. Suddenly Blue Horizon luffed up and sailed into us, before we had time to react her bow hit us near the port shroud, damaging the chain-plate and bottle screw. We were worried that the mast would fall so we sailed home.

Blue Horizon: We were reaching fast; it was a glorious sail. Yellow Peril was ahead and we caught them up. We sailed to leeward and were overlapped with Yellow Peril. I could see the mark dead ahead.

A gust hit us and we broached, out of control. I could not do anything at the helm, but the trimmer dumped the main. Yellow Peril was windward boat but she did nothing to avoid us. Within seconds of the gust hitting us we hit Yellow Peril.

There was damage to the starboard side at the bow and the forestay seemed a bit soft, so we went home.

What is your opinion? Has either boat broken a rule? Should either boat be penalised? Please explain how you arrived at your answer 


Challenge 5 Correct Answer 

One point for each (max 10)

  • In position 1, both boats are on the same tack (starboard), and YP is clear ahead of BH
  • BH must keep clear of YP (rule 12) / YP is right-of-way boat.
  • BH becomes overlapped to leeward of YP and gains right-of-way (through her own actions). YP must keep clear of BH.
  • Therefore rule 15 applies to BH / BH must give YP room to keep clear.
  • BH obtained an overlap within two of her hull lengths to leeward of YP / rule 17 applies to BH / BH may not sail above her proper course.
  • BH luffed up (‘suddenly’) can did not give YP room to keep clear / BH broke rule 16.1
  • BH sailed above her proper course (above the line direct to the mark) and so broke rule 17.
  • By causing contact, BH broke rule 14 / no exoneration as there was damage
  • It was not reasonably possible for YP to avoid contact / she did not break rule 14 (‘before we had time to react’).
  • BH losing control does not change the requirements to give room to keep clear etc (World Sailing case 99).
  • Both boats retired, and so BH took an appropriate penalty, and cannot be further penalised.
  • If serious damage, which is obvious to both boats at the time of the incident, then no need for hail or protest flag in order to protest (etc)

Bonus points (max 2 of)

  • World Sailing case 7 – application of rule 17
  • World Sailing case 19 – interpretation of damage (or RYA 2001/3)
  • World Sailing case 24 – requirement to give room to keep clear (rule 15)
  • World Sailing case 99 – loss of control does change how the rules apply
  • World Sailing case 103 – interpretation of the phrase ‘seamanlike way’. We expect all helms to be reasonably competent but not expert.
  • And other similar cases

Challenge 4

Welcome to Challenge 4 of the Irish Sailing Lockdown Sailing Rules Quiz! Take part as an individual, as a class team or a club team. Please feel free to share with your club or class or team and just submit one answer per team.

  1. The scenario below describes a common issue that arises in coastal and offshore racing. You, as the competitor in the scenario, must describe what action you should take so that all boats follow the rules. Please back up your proposal with reference to the relevant rules
  1. Send back your answers (before Friday 1st May). Send your answers to irishsailingruleschallenge@gmail.com (max 200 words)
  2. On Tuesday 5th of May at 1700hrs we will have a short webinar to discuss the answer. There will be a panel of 3 International Judges to answer the questions and discuss the scenario (Gordon Davies, Chris Lindsay and Cxema Pico)
  3. The webinar recording will be able for you to download afterwards if you are not able to make the time.

For once the weather was fine, your crew was available and someone else was running racing. It was a perfect day for the club’s annual coastal race for the cruiser class. 

The course set lead out of the bay, round the Head and then anti-clockwise round an island before heading back to the finish. To keep boats away from the rocks the course required boats to leave a navigation buoy to port at the far end of the island, about half a mile off.

Your boat, the Green Banner had sailed along the island shore to keep out of the current, and then struggled to sail out to, and then sail round, the buoy. 

It did not help that as you were fighting the current you noticed Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon creeping round the point, taking advantage of a counter current without sailing out to the buoy.

The crew is indignant, and insist that ‘something must be done’. However, the two boats are now over a mile away.

What should you do? Please refer to the rules and any other sources to justify your answer.


Challenge 4 Correct Answer

Has a rule been broken? If so, at what point is the rule broken?

Yes. In this case, Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon have failed to sail the course as required by RRS 28.2. However, they only break the rule when they finish (WS Case 112, Answer 2).

RRS 28.1 requires a boat to ‘start, sail the course as described in the sailing instruction and finish’. How a boat is to meet these requirements is set out in RRS 28.2. The last sentence of RRS 28.2 allows a boat to ‘correct any errors to comply with this rule, provided that she has no finished’. This leads to the conclusion that a boat only breaks RRS 28.2 when she finishes, as she may still correct an error until then (see WS Case 112).

What should be done?

‘Green Banner’ should protest both boats

It is unlikely, unless they have despatched a vessel to verify the mark rounding, that the Race Committee is aware that the two boats have failed to sail the course. This is often the case in coastal and offshore racing.

In any case, the Race Committee is under no obligation to protest. The conclusion to WS Case 39 states that ‘a Race Committee is not required to protest a boat. The primary responsibility for enforcing the rules lies with the competitors.’   This conclusion applies the Basic Principle, Sportsmanship and the Rules: competitors in the sport of sailing are governed by a body of rules that they are expected to follow and enforce.

So, if the crew insists that ‘something must be done’ it follows that Green Banner must protest. The rules set out clear procedures for protesting. These procedures should not be seen as administrative hurdles to prevent the hearing of a protest, rather they provide guarantees, in particular to the protested boat, that they are informed of any intention to protest in good time, either to take an appropriate penalty, which may be to retire, or to prepare for a protest hearing (which includes finding witnesses).

In this case, there is no requirement to hail ‘protest’ or display a red flag but Green Banner must inform the other two boats either before or at the first reasonable opportunity after they finish (RRS 61.1 (a)(3). The rules make no mention of the use of VHF radio to communicate with the other boats. A protest committee may find that, in an event at which boats are required to carry radios, an attempt to contact the protested boats by VHF is the ‘first reasonable opportunity’. Personally, I would favour informing competitors of this interpretation at the start of the event. Some colleagues may not agree!

For the protest to be valid ‘Green Banner’ must demonstrate that she has informed Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon at the first reasonable opportunity. She has no obligation, other than social, to inform Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon before they finish, but if she does not do so she must take steps to inform them at the first reasonable opportunity after they finish. Informing the other boats can be:

  • - by hail on the water or in the harbour;
  • -  by calling on VHF and receiving acknowledgement
  • - by mobile phone or text.
  • - by talking to a member of the crew

It is important to note that the rule states that the protestor shall inform the other boats at the first reasonable opportunity. This raises the question as to what happens if no reasonable opportunity arises. There are frequent problems at regattas which are based at several venues (for example Dun Laoghaire Regatta). In the same way, at the finish of offshore races, the first boats may arrive long before the last boats. It may be possible to ask the Race Office for the contact details of the boats that you wish to contact (although there may be data protection issues to resolve). As a last resort, if reasonable but unsuccessful steps have been taken to inform the protested boats, then a notice clearly visible on or next to the official notice board, posted before the protest time limit, would demonstrate that an attempt has been made to inform the protested boats.

It may well be that your crew feels strongly that Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon have acted in a way that is unsportsmanlike. They may feel that there was no possible error or confusion in the way the course was communicated to competitors, or that the two boats knowingly sailed a shorter course in order to gain an advantage. In which case, it may be wise to steer the protest committee in this direction by including in the protest a reference to RRS 2, which requires a boat and her owner to compete ‘in compliance with recognised principles of sportsmanship and fair play’. The Protest Committee may also decide to invoke RRS 2, even if the protest itself makes no mention of this.If, subsequently, it is clearly established that these principles have been violated then the Protest Committee may penalise the two boats. If the Protest Committee believes that there has been a serious breach of RRS 2 they should consider opening an action under RRS 69, Misconduct. WS Case 138 provides guidance, including a list of examples of Misconduct.

Finally, Green Banner should deliver a completed form to the Race Office (or follow any other procedure set out in the Sailing Instructions) before the time limit. It would be prudent, but not obligatory, to inform Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon that she has done so.

To resume:

  1. If Green Banner alleges that Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon have not sailed the course as required by RRS 28.1 and 28.2 she must protest.
  2. Green Banner has no obligation to protest before Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon finish.
  3. Green Banner must then inform Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon at the first reasonable opportunity.
  4. In addition, Green Banner may consider protesting under RRS 2, Fair Sailing.
  5. Deliver protest form before protest time limit.

Challenge 3

Welcome to Week 3 of the Irish Sailing Lockdown Sailing Rules Quiz! Take part as an individual, as a class team or a club team. Please feel free to share with your club or class or team and just submit one answer per team.

  1. A scenario is below with statements by the boats involved. You are the local judge for your club, and have been asked to settle their disagreement by deciding which boat if any has broken a rule.
  1. You have a few days to ask any questions. Once you have decided send back your answer (before Sunday 26th of April). Send your answers to irishsailingruleschallenge@gmail.com (max 200 words)
  2. On Tuesday 28th of April at 1700hrs we will have a short webinar to discuss the answer. There will be a panel of 3 International Judges to answer the questions and discuss the scenario (Gordon Davies, Chris Lindsay and Cxema Pico)
  3. The webinar recording will be able for you to download afterwards if you are not able to make the time.

Our friends from Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon had an incident at the starting line and although both boats continued to sail the race, Yellow Peril had been called over the line. As usual this bunch of sailors hardly ever agree on who was at fault and have asked for your advice. Here are their stories:

Yellow Peril: We were protecting our place in the line making sure we could accelerate before the starting signal. When we saw Blue Horizon coming to leeward of us, we started to accelerate. When they established an overlap at one boat length from the line, she never gave us room to keep clear and pushed us to be over the line.

Blue Horizon: We had been practicing our time and distance drills for this championship. We had it perfect! We had a clear straight line to the start and were reaching maximum speed. We saw Yellow Peril bearing down of us, but we expected them to luff up and keep clear. After all we were to leeward. They didn’t.

There was contact between the boats I could see scuff marks on the port side of Yellow Peril. We had similar marks, nothing that cannot come out without a good rub.

What is your opinion? Has either boat broken a rule? Should either boat be penalised? Please explain how you arrived at your answer.
 


Challenge 3 Correct Answers

Marking guide:

BH, who is originally keep clear boat because is clear astern (Rule 12) (1 mark), gains an overlap to leeward and becomes right of way (Rule 11) (1 mark). 

When the overlap is established now YP must keep clear (Rule 11) (1 mark). From the time the overlap began (at pos. 3) there is sufficient room for yellow to manoeuvre promptly and in a seamanlike way to keep clear (Def. Room) (1 mark), but YP continues in a convergent course until the distance between the boats is too small for her to comply with the obligation to keep clear under rule 11 (1 mark).

BH does not alter course, so she is under no obligation to give room to YP to keep clear under Rule 16.1 (1 mark). Furthermore, because the overlap was created through the actions of YP Rule 15 second part applies and she does not have to initially give room to BH (1 marks).

BH, who is right of way boat, need only act to avoid contact once it is clear that YP is not was not keeping clear (Rule 14a) (1 mark).

At position 4, when the boats were already very close and a luff from YP to keep clear would have resulted in contact, it was possible for BH to bear away and avoid contact and breaks Rule 14 (1 mark), but because the contact did not cause damage BH shall be exonerated (Rule 14b) (1 mark)

  • YP breaks rules 11 and 14
  • BH breaks rule 14, but is exonerated under 14(b)

Bonus Marks (max +2):

Reasoning on damage- Reasoning on damage (WS Case 19) (1 point). Further references (WS Case 141, Q&A ) (1 point).

 

Challenge 2

Lockdown Rules Quiz CHALLENGE 2
07 April 2020

  1. You are the local judge for your club, and have been asked to settle their disagreement by deciding which boat if any has broken a rule.
  2. You have a few days to ask any questions (before Friday 17th of April). Once you have decided send back your answer! Send your answers to Irishsailingruleschallenge@gmail.com (max 200 words)
  3. On Tuesday 21st April at 1700hrs we will have a short webinar to discuss the answer. There will be a panel of 3 International Judges to answer the questions and discuss the scenario (Gordon Davies, Chris Lindsay and Cxema Pico)
  4. The webinar recording will be able for you to download afterwards if you are not able to make the time.
  5. Contact sl.rossiter@sailing.ie for the ZOOM login, ID and password. Thank you 😊

It was your day to run racing for the Cruiser fleet. On the finish line you note two incidents involving our friends Yellow Peril and Blue Horizon. The course is windward-leeward, with an upwind finish.

As Yellow Peril crossed the line she hit the pin end mark, then sailed home. Blue Horizon seemed a little confused. She passed to windward of the committee boat, dipped below the line then luffed back across the line.

As Race Officer for the day what should you do?
You should explain how the rules apply to both boats and explain any action that the race officer should take and why. You should assume that the sailing instructions do not change any of the normal racing rules of sailing. Bonus marks will be given for the best solutions!


CHALLENGE 2 CORRECT ANSWER

Suggested answer:

Numbers in brackets indicate how points were awarded for this challenge. Max 10 points plus up to 2 bonus points.

Yellow Peril:                                   

YP has correctly finished (1) because she has crossed the finish line in the direction of the last mark (1). However, she has not cleared the finish line and marks in position 2 (1) and so was still racing (1). Therefore, by hitting the finish mark, YP broke rule 31 (1). The race committee (or PC) should protest her (1) but must record her as finished (1). She should have completed a penalty turn (and refinished) (1)

Blue Horizon:                                

BH has also finished correctly (1) however BH has not sailed the course/has broken rule 28 (1) as a string representing her track….would pass on the wrong side of the committee boat (1). Race Committee (or PC) should protest her (1)  but must record her as finished (1). She should have returned, unwound her sting (and finished) (1)

Bonus marks     (max two of)

  • Mentions WS Case 127 (when no longer racing after finishing)    (1)
  • Mentions WS Case 128 (RC may not DSQ without hearing)    (1)
  • Any additional discussion of requirements to protest (e.g RC must submit form in time)     (1)

Challenge 2 Answer Discussion on Zoom

Challenge 1

Lockdown Sailing Rule Quiz CHALLENGE 1
30 March 2020

It had been a wet and windy day on the water, but the Cruiser fleet had had an exciting race. As you are sitting at the bar two of your friends come in – friends to the extent that you have been competing against them ever since you started Junior Sailing! You all sail 35 foot cruisers.

Your friends seem annoyed. You ask what the problem is…

Once they have both told their story they ask for your advice. Did either boat break a rule, if so which one.

First story:

‘My boat is called Blue Horizon. It was on the first beat; I was on port. I saw Yellow Peril coming towards me, on the other tack. I heard them shout something. I knew we were going to cross ahead, even if it was going to be close. I reckon we would have had at least a metre to spare.

All of a sudden, there was a lot of shouting and Yellow Peril luffed and tacked to leeward. I heard someone shout protest but I ignored it because we had done nothing wrong.’

Second story:  

‘I was helming Yellow Peril. It was windy and the boat was being knocked about by a big swell. I saw Blue Horizon coming towards us on port. I thought we were on a collision course so we hailed ‘Starboard’. When ‘Blue Horizon’ did nothing we were really worried so we decided to luff and tack. I did not want to bear away in case ‘Blue Horizon’ did the same. We tacked in a hurry and lost way.

We hailed Protest but Blue Horizon did nothing.

Below is a diagram of the incident. By convention the wind is coming from the top of the page. (if you can not see it, there is a GIF version attached to it)

What do you think – did a boat break a rule? If so which rule and why?


Challenge 1 Correct Answer

Blue on port tack is required to keep clear of Yellow (Rule 10). Keeping clear as defined in the Racing Rules of Sailing means that Yellow can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action. The prevailing conditions in this incident were a windy beat with a swell knocking boats about. In such conditions when sailing cruisers attempting to cross a metre ahead of a starboard tack boat is not seamanlike. It was perfectly reasonable for Yellow to be worried and feel that there was a need to take avoiding action.

Therefore, as Yellow needed to take avoiding action, Blue was not keeping clear. Blue, on port, failed to keep clear of Yellow, on starboard, as required by Rule 10. Blue should take a penalty.

Further reading:

In addition to the Racing Rules of Sailing, World Sailing publishes a Case Book which provides authoritative interpretations and explanations of the Racing Rules. The intention is that judges and protest committees around the world apply the rules in the same way.

In the situation described Case 50 is relevant. This Case states:

When after considering all the evidence, a protest committee finds that the starboard tack boat did not change course or that there was not a genuine and reasonable apprehension of collision on her part, it should dismiss her protest. When however, it is satisfied that the starboard tack boat did change course, that there was reasonable doubt that the port tack boat could have crossed ahead and that the starboard tack boat was justified in taking avoiding action by bearing away, then the port tack boat should be disqualified.

The Case Book can be found at:

https://www.sailing.org/tools/documents/20172020WorldSailingCaseBookv1.1-[22915].pdf

Challenge 1 Answer Discussion on Zoom